A colorimetric probe for dopamine based on gold nanoparticles-electrospun nanofibre composite
- Authors: Ngomane, Nokuthula , Torto, Nelson , Krause, Rui W M , Vilakazi, Sibulelo
- Date: 2015
- Subjects: To be catalogued
- Language: English
- Type: text , article
- Identifier: http://hdl.handle.net/10962/195407 , vital:45562 , xlink:href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2015.08.036"
- Description: An easily prepared solid state colorimetric probe for detecting the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) was developed. The probe, in the form of an electrospun Nylon−6 (N6) nanofibre with embedded un−functionalized gold nanoparticles (UF−AuNPs) produces a clear colour change in the presence of a DA that is detectable by the naked eye. Characterisation of the nanofibre using UV/vis spectroscopy and electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of the AuNPs in the polymer solution, and that the AuNPs were completely encapsulated within the composite nanofibres before exposure to the analytes. The probe exhibited very high sensitivity towards DA resulting in colour change of the composite fibres from purple to navy blue/black even under low concentrations of DA. The probe was also selective to DA since the colour remained unchanged in the presence of commonly encountered interfering species such as ascorbic acid, uric acid, catechol, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Moreover, the colour change was observed rapid, occurring either immediately on contact with higher concentrations (5 x10−4 M) or within about 3−5 min for the lower concentrations (e.g. 5 x10−7 M). Since this probe does not require the use of any instruments, and is both rapid and stable over time, it can be applied in the field by an inexperienced person.
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- Date Issued: 2015
Gold nanoparticle–based colorimetric probes for dopamine detection
- Authors: Ngomane, Nokuthula
- Date: 2016
- Language: English
- Type: Thesis , Doctoral , PhD
- Identifier: vital:4565 , http://hdl.handle.net/10962/d1021261
- Description: Colorimetric probes have become important tools in analysis and biomedical technology. This thesis reports on the development of such probes for the detection of dopamine (DA). Liquid and different solid state probes were developed utilizing un–functionalized gold nanoparticles (UF–AuNPs). The liquid state probe is based on the growth and aggregation of the UF–AuNPs in the presence of DA. Upon addition of the UF–AuNPs to various concentrations of DA, the shape, size and colour change results in spectral shifts from lower to higher wavelengths. The analyte can be easily monitored by the naked eye from 5.0 nM DA with a calculated limit of detection of 2.5 nM (3σ) under optimal pH. Ascorbic acid (AA) has a potential to interfere with DA detection in solution since it is often present in biological fluids, but in this case the interference was limited to solutions where its concentration was beyond 200 times greater than that of DA. Since most of the previously reported colorimetric probes, especially those for DA are solution based, the main focus of the thesis was in the development of a solid state based colorimetric probe in the form of nanofibre mats. To overcome the interference challenges experienced in the solution studies (the interference by high concentrations of AA), the suitability of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective detection of DA was investigated. The results showed that the MIPs produced did not play a significant role in enhancing the selectivity towards DA. A probe composed of just the UF–AuNPs and Nylon–6 (UF–AuNPs + N6) was also developed. The UF–AuNPs were synthesized following an in situ reduction method. The probe was only selective to DA and insensitive to other catecholamines at physiological pH. Thus, the probe did not require any addition functionalities to achieve selectivity and sensitive to DA. The liquid state probe and the composite UF–AuNPs + N6 nanofibre probe were successfully applied to a whole blood sample and showed good selectivity towards DA. The simple, sensitive and selective probe could be an excellent alternative for on–site and immediate detection of DA without the use of instrumentation. For quantification of DA using the solid state probe, open–source software imageJ was used to assist in the analysis of the nanofibre colours. It was observed that the intensity of the colour increased with the increase in concentration of DA in a linear fashion. The use of imageJ can also be a great alternative where the colour changes are not so clear or for visually impaired people. The solid state probe developed can detect DA qualitatively and quantitatively. The work also forms a good foundation for development of such probes for other analyte.
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- Date Issued: 2016